Journal of Scientific Papers


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ISSN 2071-789X

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Strike Plagiarism

  • General Founder and Publisher:

    Centre of Sociological Research


  • Publishing Partners:

    University of Szczecin (Poland)

    Széchenyi István University, (Hungary)

    Mykolas Romeris University (Lithuania)

    Alexander Dubcek University of Trencín (Slovak Republic)

  • Membership:

    American Sociological Association

    European Sociological Association

    World Economics Association (WEA)




Deliniation of metropolitan areas in Poland: A functional approach

Vol. 15, No 4, 2022

Bogna Gawrońska-Nowak


Cracow University of Economics,

Cracow, Poland


ORCID 0000-0003-3651-7637


Deliniation of metropolitan areas in Poland: A functional approach


Piotr Lis


Coventry University,

Coventry, UK


ORCID 0000-0001-6060-2423

Olha Zadorozhna


Kozminski University,

Warsaw, Poland


ORCID 0000-0002-2160-6904


Abstract. Delineation of urban functional areas helps policymakers and urban planners understand the connections between the core cities and areas surrounding them, and subsequently develop policies and solutions that can serve local populations. This article develops a readily applicable econometric method for delineation that considers functional aspects of cities and their surroundings. We perform delineation analysis using the data for 78 Polish core cities, grouping them by population size. Using the satellite data on lights emitted at night, population density, commuter numbers as well as the number of houses and apartments built in each commune, we apply a threshold regression model to determine the boundaries of functional urban areas. Our main results suggest that the mean radius of functional urban areas (FUAs) around the largest (most populous) cities is, on average, 21 km, while it is between 13 and 16 km for smaller cities. We then test how the econometric results compare with the perceptions of local inhabitants through a citizen science project (CSP) conducted as a robustness check.


Received: November, 2021

1st Revision: September, 2022

Accepted: December, 2022


DOI: 10.14254/2071-789X.2022/15-4/4

JEL ClassificationR12, R58, R11, O18

Keywords: Poland, urban functional areas, core city, delineation, night-lights